Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Neonatal Outcome of Term Pregnancy at a Teaching Hospital of Abbottabad, Pakistan

Iram Sarwar, Uzma Ahmed, Attiya Bibi Khan

Abstract


Introduction: Pregnancies complicated by diabetes are associated with a high rate of miscarriage, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, perinatal mortality and neonatal congenital malformations compared to the background population.

Objective: To determine the effect of Diabetes Mellitus on the neonatal outcome of term pregnancy at a teaching hospital of Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Materials & Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from March to August 2016 on 196 pregnant females diagnosed with either type 1 or type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. They were followed up till delivery and frequency of various adverse neonatal outcomes were recorded in infants born to these diabetic mothers.

Results: The most common adverse neonatal outcome was hypoglycemia (38.78%) followed by low birth weight (21.43%) and macrosomia (17.86%). When the outcome variables were stratified according to Age, BMI, Blood Pressure, Duration and Type of Diabetes Mellitus, only hypoglycemia was found to be significantly associated with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (p = 0.002).

Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus is associated with a number of adverse neonatal outcomes irrespective of the type of Diabetes Mellitus. Obstetricians need to be aware of recent guidelines for management of Diabetes Mellitus to try to reduce the adverse outcomes in pregnancy.

Keywords: Gestational Diabetes; Hyperglycemia; Macrosomia; Hypoglycyemia; Pregnancy; Morbidity; Mortality.


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