Guillain-Barre Syndrome occurring as acute flaccid paralysis in children at Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar
Keywords:Paralysis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Child, Preschool, Poliomyelitis
Introduction: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating ascending polyradiculoneuropathy. Following the eradication of poliomyelitis worldwide, GBS is considered the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis. A study done in Hazara division of Pakistan in 2007 reported GBS to be the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis among children of age 12-24 months; children aged more than 96 months constituted 20% of the total cases.
Objective: To determine the frequency of Guillain-Barre Syndrome in children presenting with acute flaccid paralysis at a tertiary care hospital of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Materials & Methods: A descriptive study based on retrospectively collected data of three years (March 2016 to March 2019) was conducted from September 2019 to May 2020 in the Pediatrics department of Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, in which 85 children presenting with acute flaccid paralysis were included. Cases with Poliomyelitis and those with acute flaccid paralysis with no confirmed diagnosis were excluded; exclusion of Polio patients was based on examination of stools for polio virus. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics using SPSS 20.
Result: Out of the 85 patients with acute flaccid paralysis, 39(45.88%) had Guillain-Barre Syndrome, followed by cerebral palsy 09(10.59%) and transverse myelitis 07(8.24%). A male preponderance of 24(61.54%) was reported for GBS compared to 15(38.46%) for females. Children aged 2-4 years 19(48.72%) were more commonly affected.
Conclusion: Guillain-Barre Syndrome was the most common non-polio cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children, with a predilection for males and the age group of 2-4 years.